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Introduction to the Principles and Construction of FDM 3D Printing

2023-07-20 18:07

FDM is the abbreviation of "Fused deposition modeling", which is the way we describe a 3D printer. FDM3D printing uses special plastic wire, which is used to melt the consumables through the hot end of the nozzle before extrusion. Then, slicing software is used to cut the model into layers of data and perform layer by layer printing.

Introduction to FDM3D Printing Principles
Melt layer deposition molding technology is the process of heating and melting filamentous hot melt data, while the 3D nozzle selectively applies the data on the workbench based on cross-sectional profile information under computer control, rapidly cooling to form a layer of cross-section. After one layer forming is completed, the machine workbench will descend one height (i.e. layer thickness) to form the next layer until the whole Solid modeling is formed. It has a wide variety of forming materials, high strength and precision of formed parts, and is a relatively practical manufacturing technology.

How does an FDM printer work?
The FDM3D printing technology is shown in the above figure. Simply put, the FDM3D printer pulls the material from the spool into the heated module and the nozzle of the extruder, and heats it up to a molten state. After running the slicing software program, it generates layer by layer trajectory data, and then runs the XYZ axis motor to extrude the extruded wire according to the trajectory, which is a bit like milking oil stacked layer by layer, Finally, form a complete model. Its principle is actually similar to traditional CNC, but FDM3D printing is an addition from scratch, while CNC is a subtraction from the entire piece to the model.

All FDM3D printers have similar principles, requiring 3D printing wires as raw materials to manufacture models. Therefore, devices that can be compatible with more wires are undoubtedly more advantageous. There are many types of 3D printing wires, and popular types are listed, such as PLA, ABS, TPU, PETG, PA, etc. Therefore, when choosing equipment with a larger temperature range, some industrial equipment can even reach a temperature of 360 ° C.

Construction of FDM3D printer
The main structural components of the FDM3D printer can be briefly described and divided into three parts: the main control motherboard system, the main motion mechanical system, and the main forming hot end system.
The motherboard system is mainly composed of motherboards, sensors, and other components, responsible for connecting sensors in various parts, conveying commands, similar to the human brain, connecting multiple sensors, responsible for overall control.
The mechanical system is mainly composed of motors, transmission components, etc., which are used to control the movement of XYZ and achieve an overall operating system.
The hot end system is mainly composed of a combination of a hot bed, an extrusion end, a heat dissipation fan, etc., forming a complete heating system for printing various materials.

The Benefits of FDM3D Printing
Low cost, compared to traditional manufacturing and 3D printer equipment, the equipment cost is low. In addition, the utilization efficiency of materials is high, and some materials are made of environmentally friendly and renewable materials, greatly reducing the molding cost. In addition, there is no need to spend money to establish and maintain a dedicated space, which is suitable for use in office design environments.
Low pollution, no chemical type changes in raw materials during the molding process, and lower noise and pollution in FDM printing manufacturing compared to traditional manufacturing.
Easy to handle and replace, as raw materials are stored in the form of spools and can be quickly replaced and transported.
There are a variety of compatible materials, such as engineering plastics ABS, PC, PP, PA, etc. in various colors, which can manufacture finished products of various materials and achieve multi-purpose in one machine. At the same time, it is convenient for production and functional testing. You can choose materials with different strengths and toughness to meet the needs of various fields.
The use of water-soluble support data makes removing the support structure simple and easy, allowing for the rapid construction of complex inner cavities, hollow parts, and once formed assembly structural components.
Compared to UV curing printing, FDM has a relatively larger printing space, faster speed, supports a wider variety of materials, is compatible with more industry fields, and uses materials that are more cost-effective.